Silver carbonate is a compound formed when silver and carbonic acid combine. Silver carbonate can be created by reacting silver nitrate with sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate in water.

Silver compounds are occasionally encountered as the result of chemical reactions. Sometimes, these compounds are unwanted and must be removed. In other cases, like in photography solutions, they are needed components.

Knowing the solubility of **silver carbont eis important** when removing it from a solution. The solubility of a compound depends on the relative concentrations of the compound and its dissociation in water.

The solubility equation for silver carbont eis Ksp= [Ag2CO3]/[Ag+][CO3−]where Ksp is the solubility product constant. This article will discuss how to find the Ksp for **silver carbont eusing experimental data**.

## Calculate equilibrium constant

The equilibrium constant for the reaction of silver ions and carbonate is calculated in the same way as the other reactions mentioned above.

First, the solubility of silver carbonate is defined as how **much silver carbonate would** be dissolved at equilibrium. The solubility is 0.032 m, or 0.032 mol/L. This is determined from the experiment where all conditions except for temperature are held constant and then measured how much silver carbonate is dissolved.

Then, the concentration of each ion in solution is calculated by multiplying its mass by the solution’s volume. The concentration of Ag+ is 8×10−6 M and Ca2+ is 2×10−3 M.

Finally, Ksp can be **calculated using equation 4** on page 3 of the article linked below.

## Divide both sides of the equilibrium equation by [AgCO3]

Next, calculate the solubility of silver carbonate by dividing the amount of AgCO3 that would be produced if all the Ag+ ions in the solution were replaced with silver oxide by the number of moles of Ag+ ions in the solution.

You do this by multiplying the concentration of Ag+ ions in the solution by the volume of solution and then dividing that number by the volume of a mole of dissolved substance.

That calculation gives you 0.032 mmol/L, or 0.032 M, which is close to what was reported in the article. This proves that your assumption was correct!

The reported Ksp (solubility product) value is equal to [Ag2CO3]2[AgCO3]/[Ag2CO3]. To check your work, divide both sides of that equation by [Ag2CO3] and multiply both sides by [AgCO3]^{2}. You should get 1, which is close to what was reported in the article.\r

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## Divide both sides of the equilibrium equation by [CO3^]

The calculated Ksp is 0.032 M / [CO3^] = 1.6 x 10^-5. Therefore, 1 mole of silver carbonate will dissociate into 1.6 x 10^-5 moles of silver ions and 1 mole of carbonate ions at a concentration of 0.032 M CO3-2 .

At any other concentration, the number of silver ions and carbonate ions will be the same as above at a concentration of 0.032 M CO3-2 . For example, at a concentration of 0.040 M CO3-2 , there would be 2 moles of each ion present, resulting in 2/1.6 x 10^-5 = 1.25 x 10^-4 moles of each ion per liter solution.

## Multiply both sides of the equilibrium equation by [1 / (1 + x)]

To calculate the solubility of silver carbonate at any temperature, you would multiply both sides of the Equation by [1 / (1 + x)], where x is the concentration of silver carbonate. Then, divide both sides by 1 + x.

For example, to find the solubility of silver carbonate at 25°C, you would multiply both sides of the equilibrium equation by [1 / (1 + 0.032)], then divide both sides by 1 + 0.032.

You would get: {[Ag2CO3(s)]} = {[Ag2CO3(s)]} × [[Ag2CO3(s)]] / [(1 + 0.032)][Ag2CO3(s)] Which can be simplified to: {{\rm{\Delta}\;\;{\rm{Ag2CO3}}} = {\rm{\Delta}\;\;{\rm{Ag2CO3}}} } \over {\frac{{{\rm{\Delta}\;\|{{\rm{Ag2Co}}_{2}^{0} }}} – {{\rm{\Delta}\|{{\rm{Ag2Co}}_{ 2}^{0} }}}}{{({({({({(\frac{{ – 1}}}{{{(\frac{{ – 1}}}{{{(\frac{“”}{“}}})!}}})!}}})!}}}))!”}}}))!”}}}]} } \over {\frac{{({[” Ag 2 Co]}^{0}]}-[[ Ag 2 Co]}^{0]})}{{([ Ag 2 Co]}^{0}])!}} }}.”}”}””}},where \cdot” means multiplication.} You can see that as temperature increases, so does solubility.

You can see that as temperature increases, so does solubency.

## Solve for x

Now that you know the solubility equilibrium constant for silver carbonate, you can calculate the x value for the above equation.

Ksp = [Ag2CO3]x[Ag+]x[CO32−]x

Ksp = (0.032mol/L)(10−6mole/mol)(10−6mole/mol)(10−6mole/mol)

Ksp = 3.2×10−8mole/L=3.2×10−8M

Therefore, the concentration of Ag2CO3 in a solution with a molarity of 0.032M is 3.2×10−8M, or 0.0000032 mol/L.

## Use a table of solubility to determine the value of x

A table of solubility can be used to determine the value of x, the amount of silver carbonate that can be dissolved in 1 liter of water at 20°C. The table gives the concentration of silver carbonate in solution as x, so you need to find the amount of silver carbonate that can be dissolved in 1 liter of water.

You need to know the molarity and temperature to look up the solubility in a table. The molarity is 0.032, and 20°C is close to room temperature, so you do not need to correct for temperature.

To find x, you first have to divide 1 by 0.032, which gives you 0.32. Then multiply that by 1000 to **get 320 liters** of *solution per kilogram* of silver carbonate.

## Calculate Ksp using the formula below

Solubility product constant, Ksp, is a measurement of how easily a compound dissolves in solution. Ksp is mostly studied in relation to **salt solutions**, or more specifically, *sodium chloride solutions*.

Like most substances, sodium chloride can exist in either an ionic or molecular form. In the case of pure NaCl, it exists as a molecule; that is, one atom of sodium joined with one atom of chlorine.

Sodium chloride can also exist as an ionic compound, where there is an equal number of ions of each element. In the case of NaCl, there would be one ion of sodium and one ion of **chlorine per molecule** of NaCl.

The ability for NaCl to dissolve in water depends on how many ions it can form and how many molecules it can break down into. Ionization depends on the pH level of the solution; if the solution is more acidic, then more ions will be formed. Breaking down into molecules depends on the level of saturation; if there are enough other molecules present in the solution, then some may break down into ions.

## Convert molar masses to concentrations and enter into the Ksp formula

Now that you know the solubility of silver carbonate, you can calculate its Ksp! First, convert the molar mass of silver carbonate to a concentration by dividing the molar mass by the molality of silver carbonate.

Then, enter 0.032 M and 20°C into the Ksp calculator and press calculate. You will get 1.14*10-8, which means that one mole of Ag2CO3 will **dissolve one mole** of Ag+ in 1.14*10-8 moles of water at 20°C.

This is a very small number, which explains why it is difficult to completely dissolve Ag2CO3 in water. It will eventually settle out as a solid material on the bottom of the beaker.

The **solution may need** to be heated in order to completely dissolve all of the Ag2CO3.