In recent years, there has been a notable surge in the use of racial slurs. Many people have expressed their discomfort with the ever-increasing frequency with which people are openly using racist language.
Some have even claimed that this increased usage of racist language is part of a larger campaign to normalize racism. By making it common and acceptable, some believe that those who believe in racism are trying to create a doctrine that supports their beliefs.
However, what is the actual definition of legal segregation? And when did this concept rise to prominence? More specifically, when and why was the term “separation” defined as a legal doctrine that permitted racial segregation in public facilities?
This article will answer these questions and more as we take a look at the history of legal segregation and how it changed over time.
Another significant historical event that had a major impact on racial relations in the United States was the disenfranchisement of black voters during the 20th century.
During the Civil War, black soldiers fought for the Union under General Oliver Otis Howard. After the war, General Howard became head of the Freedmen’s Bureau, an organization that provided aid to former slaves.
General Howard organized local black communities into “military districts” and encouraged them to vote. This is widely credited with helping African-American voter turnout in the 1868 presidential election, when Republican Ulysses S. Grant won the presidency.
Following Reconstruction, many Southern states enacted laws that made it more difficult for African Americans to vote — such as requiring literacy tests or charging poll taxes — or outright repealed laws that established voting rights for all citizens. These actions are referred to as “disenfranchisement.
Black codes were laws created and enforced in states of the former Confederate States in the early to mid-twentieth century. These laws were put into place to regulate black people’s lives, including their employment, living situations, social life, and more.
Many of these laws were designed to keep black people from prospering or moving up in society. For example, employers could pay black workers less than white workers for the same job due to a law that stated minimum wages for blacks.
These laws also gave power to white people over black people by allowing them to call police or force them to move out of neighborhoods if they felt threatened.
Black codes are one of the terms defined as “legal doctrine which permitted racial segregation in public facilities” on the survey.
Redlining is a term that is defined as “a legal doctrine that permitted racial segregation in residential areas.”
Redlining refers to the practice of denying mortgage loans to residents based on the color of their skin or the racial composition of their neighborhood.
Mortgage lenders would draw a red line on a map around neighborhoods where they would not make mortgage loans to African Americans, thus preventing them from buying or refinancing a home in those neighborhoods.
This was an extremely common practice before civil rights activists like Martin Luther King Jr. helped to outlaw it through protests and media coverage.
Although it is no longer legal, its effects are still being felt in communities across the country. Redlining has contributed to the continued racial segregation we see today, as well as the lack of affordable housing in certain neighborhoods.
De jure segregation
“De jure” means “by law” and refers to segregation that is mandated by laws, regulations, and policies. This type of segregation is enforced by government institutions like courts and police departments.
It can also refer to segregation that is mandated by community norms or popular opinion. For example, a white-majority neighborhood may have a informal consensus that no people of color should live there due to lack of acceptance.
De jure segregation can be very difficult to fight because it is reinforced by authoritative figures like judges and police officers. Even if individuals try to fight de jure segregation, they may find it hard to get help from legal officials who support the status quo.
The term was first defined in a 1998 paper published in the University of California–Davis Law Review—but it has gained traction in recent months as college students have been exposed to professors who use the term.
De facto segregation
Along with de jure segregation, another term that is defined as “a legal doctrine” is “de facto segregation.” De facto is defined as “existing in fact, although not in law.”
This term is defined as the racial segregation that exists due to people choosing to live around people of the same race. This is not enforced by law or official policies, but instead by individual choices.
People of color often report feeling less comfortable living in white-dominated neighborhoods and working in white-dominated workplaces due to experiences of racism. As a result, many choose to live and work in communities and workplaces with people who are similar to them.
This contributes to the continued presence of racial segregation, even in places where laws have changed.
Why did racial segregation occur?
Segregation was supported by beliefs about race, which is why it took so long to dismantle it. These beliefs included the idea that races were genetically distinct, that one race was superior to others, and that social segregation was necessary to maintain order in society.
These beliefs were not only held by white people but by people of color as well. For example, some people of color believed that white society was superior and that they should be separated from them. This is why some Black Americans moved to separate communities.
The problem with these beliefs is that they are not true. Races are not genetically distinct, nor is one race superior to others. Social segregation does not maintain order in society – in fact, it does the opposite. These false beliefs led to the creation of laws and policies that supported segregation.
What are some examples of racial segregation?
Racial segregation is the separation of groups based on race. Historically, this has been demonstrated in housing, education, and employment.
Racially segregated housing was a major issue in the twentieth century, especially in the United States. As immigration to the U.S. increased at the turn of the twentieth century, racial tensions also grew.
The Immigration Act of 1924 limited immigration from southern and eastern European countries, specifically to limit Jewish and Italian immigration. This legislation also established quotas based on national origin, favoring northern European immigrants over those from southern and eastern Europe.
This act also established racial quotas that limited immigration from people of color. As a result, very few African or Asian immigrants were able to enter the U.S. during this time period.
In addition to these laws, racially-based housing covenants were also used to enforce residential segregation across America.
Who supported racial segregation?
The term “separation” was widely supported by many politicians, leaders, and even the general public. Many believed that separation of races was necessary for the betterment of society as a whole.
Many white Americans believed that blacks and other minorities were inferior to whites. This belief was fueled by false information, propaganda, and a lack of personal interaction with minorities.
Some propaganda included exaggerating the rates of crime among minority groups, portraying minorities as threats to white women, and portraying black communities as dirty or uncivilized. These stereotypes helped fuel support for separation policies.
Many people today are familiar with segregationist policies that enforced racial separation in housing and employment.